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About Flying Squirrel Biology

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There are over 40 species of flying squirrels, some of which are - Northern flying squirrels, Southern flying squirrels, Woolly flying squirrels, Afghan flying squirrels, Hairy footed flying squirrels, Red giant flying squirrels, whiskered flying squirrels, Black flying squirrels, and Arrow flying squirrels among others. The largest known flying squirrels are the woolly flying squirrels, which are mainly found in Pakistan, and the Pigmy flying squirrels that inhabit Malaysia and Borneo are the smallest flying squirrels known.



Birds of prey, foxes, raccoons, snakes, cats, coyotes, even domestic cats and dogs and other related animals are the natural predators of flying squirrels due to their small size. However, predating flying squirrels is usually a cumbersome thing to do as they are nocturnal, only coming out at night, and thereby escaping more of their predators.

Appearance
The flying squirrel is a medium sized, close relative of the common squirrels with an average weight and length of 5 ounces and 10 inches respectively. It possesses furs, large, bulging eyes and a flattened tail. The tail of a flying squirrel, normally used for balancing, can easily break off its body without any adverse result. Though they usually have whitish belly, their coat colour ranges from black to brown, tan, white or grey. Their distinctive feature is a stretchy and furry membrane that links the front and hind limbs, called the patagia.

Behaviour
Flying squirrels do not actually fly like birds or bats, they only have the ability to glide from one tree to another with their patagia (a rubber-like membrane between their legs). The normal gliding distance of a flying squirrel is between 23 meters to 45 meters, but the longest recorded distance ever stands at 90 meters. They open their patagia like a parachute when in the air and they use their paws for landing while the tail functions like brake during the landing process.

They are also nocturnal and their large, bulging eyes are adapted for foraging at night. Another adaptive feature for after dark foraging activities is the flying squirrel’s feelers, which are specialized whiskers that aid their ability to feel their surroundings at night. They forage at night to find foods and this nocturnal nature helps them to keep out of the way of predators. However they often still fall prey to snakes, climbing mammals and birds of prey.

They do not live solitary lives and as such can live in large groups of up to 20 squirrels inside holes in trees or dens. They do not hibernate during winter, but only lessen their activities and they usually come together to keep their bodies warm.

Life cycle
Flying squirrels breed twice in a year, once in early spring and again in the summer. The gestation period of about 38 days follows after mating and finally, an average of 4 baby flying squirrels are born per litter. The new offspring are born naked, blind and helpless and they depend on the mother flying squirrels for the first few months of their lives. The young ones open their eyes and start to have fur by the end of their first week; then they learn to glide from their mother, who takes full responsibility of parenthood. After 3 months, they are capable of gliding perfectly and can leave their mother's nest by then.

The average lifespan of wild flying squirrels is 6 years, though flying squirrels tend to live longer when they are captured and raised by humans; those in zoos for instance, can live up to 15 years.

Habitat
Flying squirrels mainly live around trees and they specifically like to inhabit woodpeckers’ holes, nest boxes, snags, abandoned nests of birds and other squirrels. Some of them may even den in houses or barns. They can glide easily from one tree to another while foraging. They are adapted to living in forests and woodlands at any favourable location all around the world.

Diet
As a result of being dependent on their environment for the type of foods to eat, flying squirrels are omnivores. They tend to eat anything available within their reach. Their major foods are nuts, seeds, fruits, insects, mushroom, eggs, carrion, young mice, vegetables, small snails, spiders, buds, berry etc. They also store up food that will be used during the cold winter months.

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